Required Background Information

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The objectives of this lecture series are to familiarize high school students with the CoGe program and to teach them fundamental ideas about comparative genomics.

Basic genetic ideas required


  • What is DNA, what does it do, and how does it do it?


  • What are genes and what do they do?
  • How do genes work?

Introns and Exons

  • What are introns?
  • What are exons?
  • What is the difference between them?
  • How do they related to genes?


  • What is RNA and what does it do?
  • How does RNA relate to genes?
  • What are different kinds of RNA and what are their roles in protein synthesis?

     -  mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA


  • What are proteins and what do they do?

Transcription and Translation

  • What is transcription?
  • What is translation?
  • How are they similar and how are they different?

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

  • What is the central dogma of molecular biology? How does it related to DNA, RNA, protein, transcription and translation?


  • What are the different types of mutations?


  • What is evolution?


  • What is homology?
  • What does it mean if two genes are homologous?



  • What can CoGe do and why do we need it?

Understanding the basics of the CoGe's interface

OrganismView (quicklink)

     -  lets you search for genomes

CoGeBlast (quicklink)

     -  a program that compares entire genomes and identifies similar segments of DNA


     -  a tool that visualizes genomes, enabling the user to get close up views and compare multiple genomes

Background genoview.jpg

See Also

Next Lecture:  Visually Comparing Genomes

All Lectures:  Tutorial for High School Students