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Gene space (or functional gene space) is defined as the extended space including and around genic regions, encompassing coding as well as intergenic non-coding regions bounded by the farthest upstream and downstream CNS associated with a gene. For a gene with no upstream or downstream CNS, the genic boundary (UTR) would constitute the gene space boundary. Gene spaces allow the extension of the genic region to include coding as well as regulatory (known and putative) regions. Each gene space represents a unitary functional entity with a possible conjoint or common evolutionary fate shared by all subunits contained within.